Research

 

The Centre for School Mental Health engages in research across a wide range of areas related to child and youth development, aggression, school psychology, teacher mental health literacy, and school mental health. Our team members have published refereed journal articles, reports, books and chapters, and regularly present research posters at conferences. 

We also provide a studentship program to offer opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students to gain practical research experience and collaborate with Western University faculty members.

Projects

Research

Journal Articles


Research Snapshots

Helping Newcomer Youth Adjust to Life in Canada: Conceptualizing Program Design

In this study, researchers explored experts’ suggestions for school-based programs to help newcomer youth build on their strengths to adjust to life in Canada.


Feasibility Trial of the School-based STRONG Intervention to Promote Resilience Among Newcomer Youth

Researchers evaluated the feasibility of STRONG, a school-based intervention for newcomer youth.


Resilience Program for Newcomer Youth Improves Relationships, Connectedness and Coping

This study investigated how newcomer youth perceived the benefits and acceptability of STRONG, a school-based intervention to promote resilience and mental health.


Improving Teacher Attitudes and Preventing Teacher Burnout Through Trauma-Informed Training and MindUP

This study investigated the benefits of a combination of trauma-informed training, MindUP training and MindUP program delivery on educators' trauma-sensitive attitudes and feelings of burnout.


Improving Young Children's Adaptive Skills and Behaviour Through MindUP 

In this comparison study, we evaluated the impact of MindUP on kindergarten stuents' social, emotional and adaptive behavioural skills.    


A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Evaluation of a Universal Healthy Relationships Promotion Program for Youth 

This study evaluated the Healthy Relationships Plus program (HRP) with a group of Canadian youth. HRP aims to promote positive mental health and reduce bullying and substance misuse. Researchers found that HRP participation significantly reduced the odds of physical bullying victimization at one-year follow-up compared to the control group. 


Changes in depression and positive mental health among youth in healthy relationships program

(available in French) This study explored and identified meaningful groups of youth based on their depression symptoms over time. Researchers found that youth who reported high levels of depression prior to the program experienced a significant decline in depressive symptoms and improved mental well-being following the program.


GSA members' experiences with a structured program to promote well-being

(available in French) The Fourth R's HRP for LGBT2Q+ Youth helps bolster positive mental wellness and encourage skill development among queer, trans, and gender diverse youth. It was adapted from the Healthy Relationships Plus Program (HRPP) - an evidence-informed, small group universal prevention program for youth that promotes positive mental health and well-being, and prevents risky behaviours. The HRP for LGBT2Q+ Youth was developed in consultation with academics, educators, and youth, and consists of 17 sessions, each lasting 45 minutes.


Outcomes of Mental Health First Aid course adapted in First Nations contexts

The Mental Health First Aid First Nations (MHFAFN) course was adapted from Mental Health First Aid Basic to create a community-based, culturally safe and relevant approach to promoting mental health literacy in First Nations contexts. Ensuring cultural relevance is critical in First Nations contexts. Other widely used mental health trainings that are implemented without First Nations adaptation have had minimal or even negative results. 


Children's Development of Self-Regulation for Learning During MindUP

This study explored how kindergarten children’s self-regulation for learning (SR/L) developed within a mindfulness-based social and emotional learning program (MindUP ), along with children’s demographic and teacher factors that were associated with it. Findings indicated that children’s behaviours associated with solo and social SR/L increased over the implementation of MindUP . In addition, student and teacher factors were associated with children’s SR/L. Results highlight the need for further, large-scale research to better understand if implementing MindUPTMmay support kindergarten children’s SR/L in classrooms.


A mindfulness-informed social-emotional learning program in kindergarten classrooms

This study explored changes in kindergarten children's behaviours following a mindfulness-informed social emotional learning program, MindUP ™ children showed improvements in resiliency and behaviours such as anxiety and depression following MindUP™, but no changes in aggression and hyperactivity. More research is needed to understand these mixed preliminary findings and investigate whether these changes are linked to the MindUP™ program. 


Approaches to Suicide Prevention differ between Inuit and Mainstream Health Initiatives

Increased rates of suicide are seen within Inuit communities in comparison to the general Canadian population. Research suggests that this increased risk is associated with intergenerational trauma and residential schooling. Solutions to reducing risk specific to Inuit communities are discussed. A call to action is made regarding reconnecting Inuit peoples back to their cultural practices and roles as a way to heal community members from the effects of colonization.


Predicting Implementation Fidelity and Sustainability in a School-based Prevention Program 

(available in French) Teachers that were trained in the Fourth R prior to 2009 were surveyed online to determine the extent to which they continued using the program, the modifications they made, and perceived barriers to implementation. Results indicated that most of the teachers were highly satisfied with the program and continued implementing it with fidelity after several years. Perceived  readiness after training, support and accountability emerged as predictors of high quality implementation.


Safe Schools Course Increases Knowledge and Self-efficacy in Pre-service Teachers  (available in French)

This study evaluated the impact of Safe Schools, a pre-service teacher course addressing factors that affect school climate. Pre-service teachers showed increased knowledge about bullying and self-efficacy for intervening in incidents of students’ exposure to violence following the course. Teachers need opportunities to learn about factors that affect school climate in order to provide effective intervention and foster a positive school climate.


Culturally Relevant School-based Programming for FNMI Youth: Improved Relationships, Confidence, Leadership and School Success (available in French)

This study evaluated the Fourth R Uniting Our Nations, a school-based, culturally relevant program for FNMI youth. Results highlighted multiple positive impacts of the program. Participants reported that involvement in the program contributed to increased student success, improved relationships, gains in confidence and leadership skills, and fostered a sense of belonging and cultural identity.


Two Years of School-Based, Culturally Relevant Mentoring Promotes Positive Mental Health for FNMI Youth

 (available in French) This study examined the effects of participation in a school-based, culturally relevant mentoring program on wellbeing among FNMI youth. Researchers found that adolescents who participated in 2 years of relationship-focused mentoring reported better mental health and more positive cultural identity than peers who did not participate in the program. Youth described intrapersonal and interpersonal growth, increased cultural knowledge and development of healthy relationships skills as benefits of program participation.


Evaluating Culturally-Relevant Programs for Indigenous Youth: Challenges and Strategies

 (available in French) A balance must be found between a strict research design and honoring the requirements of a community-based partnership when evaluating programming for First Nations youth. The researchers found that community-based research partnerships are essential to engage FNMI youth and partners in the evaluation of culturally-relevant programming.


Cultural Connectedness and Identity Foster Resilience in FNMI Youth

 (available in French) This study explored the specific ways in which culturally relevant programming promotes resiliency in FNMI youth. Researchers found that identity and belonging, and cultural connectedness play an important role in promoting wellbeing in FNMI youth. Programs discussed in the study are initiatives through the Fourth R Uniting Our Nations program.


Healthy Relationships Program Improves Adolescents' Ability to Manage Peer Violence

 (available in French) This study investigated whether a healthy relationships program would improve students' social and emotional skills related to knowledge about violence, critical thinking about the impact of violence, identification of coping strategies, and their acceptability of violence.  The researchers found that the program promotes knowledge, critical thinking, and coping strategies among seventh and eight graders.


The Link between Non-suicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behaviours

NSSI and suicidal behaviours are different behaviours that often co-occur. Little attention has been given to as to why these behaviours are linked. Since NSSI is considered one of the most significant risk factor for suicidal behaviours, it is crucial to examine the mechanism through which this occurs. Three theories have been proposed to explain the link between NSSI and suicidal behaviours. An integrated model of these theories is introduced.


The Critical Role of Schools in Child and Adolescent Mental Health

Mental health problems are common yet unidentified among youth. Approximately one million youth in Canada will experience a diagnosable mental health disorder and only 4% of these youth will receive the necessary services. Many youth who do not meet diagnostic criteria are struggling with substantial distress and their needs are often underreported and undetected. Schools can play an active role in mental health promotion.


Poor Relationships Predict Dating Violence in Adolescent Girls

 (available in French) This study examined risk factors associated with adolescent girls and dating violence as both victims and perpetrators. Researchers found that the presence of negative factors like poor peer and familial relationships in earlier grades were predictive of dating violence involvement in later grades.


Mental Health Literacy Curriculum in Teacher Preparation Programs: Helping Teacher Candidates Meet the Mental Health Needs of Students

The concerns of education stakeholders about teachers’ mental health literacy mirror the lack of opportunities provided in their training. There is a need for a formal mental health literacy curriculum in teacher preparation programs. In addition, current teacher candidates must explore different avenues to prepare for the mental health needs they will face in their classrooms.


Increasing Peer Resistance Skills through a School-based Intervention  (available in French)

The research team conducted a post-intervention observational study to examine youths’ peer resistance skills after exposure to a healthy relationships curriculum. Through the use of role-play, trained observers recorded the frequency of participation in peer resistance skills. Results indicated that youth who participated in the healthy relationships program were more likely to demonstrate peer resistance skills when pressured to use drugs or alcohol, have unsafe sex, or witness peer violence perpetration at a higher rate than students who had not participated in the curriculum.


Factors Related to Non-suicidal Self-injury among Adolescents Seeking Mental Health Services

This study examined the frequency of NSSI among adolescents with mental health needs and identified specific factors related to NSSI. The researchers found increased NSSI in adolescents with mood or personality disorders, histories of abuse, engagement of substance use and intentional misuse of prescription medication, and higher rates of NSSI in females. The researchers highlighted the importance of novel findings in regards to intentional misuse of prescription medications in this population.


Emotional Intelligence: The New Answer For Improving Teacher Efficacy and Well-Being

Emotional intelligence (EI) training may improve teachers' psychological health, increase teachers' efficacy, decrease their stress and job dissatisfaction, and promote positive student outcomes. There is a necessity to implement evidence-based EI training interventions for teachers to improve their efficacy. Teachers and other education professionals could gain insight from understanding the benefits of enhanced EI.


Effective Treatment of Mental Health Disorders among Children in Child Welfare Care

Many children and youth in the child welfare system are receiving inadequate mental health treatment. Evidence suggests that comprehensive intervention efforts involving the youth, family, and community are required for improving behavioural functioning and placement stability.
 


Bullying Predicts Dating Violence and Poor Relationship Quality among Adolescents

This study investigated whether bullying predicted dating violence and negative relationship features in adolescent dating relationships. Researchers found that aggression and bullying with peers significantly predicted both dating violence victimization and perpetration. Age and gender were important factors in this relationship.


Adolescent Identity Development Buffers against Peer Pressure Risk Behaviours

This study explored whether youths' level of identity exploration and commitment to identity would moderate the relationship between peer pressure and control and risk behaviours. Identity commitment was a buffer against substance use and identity exploration was a buffer against deviant behaviours. Increased identity exploration and commitment can lead to increased autonomy and sense of responsibility. These factors promote personal independence and decrease the influence of external pressuring forces when making decisions.


Addressing the Gap Between Service Need and Delivery of Child and Youth Mental Health Services

This paper explored the need for ongoing innovation, development, and evaluation of public mental health policy related to child and youth mental health services. Authors proposed a vision in which demonstration and research sites partner with public health policy and provide support through research and evidence informed practice.


A School-based Violence Prevention Program offers a Protective Impact for Youth with Maltreatment Histories

 (available in French) The Fourth R provided a protective factor against delinquency for maltreated youth at a 2-year follow-up. For these students, increasing levels of child maltreatment did not translate into higher levels of violent delinquency during adolescence. Results suggest that a short-term violence prevention program can have significant and meaningful long-term results.

Poster Presentations

Evaluation of Sustainability Strategies in a Universal Mental Health School Program Implementation - Andrea Delaney
Presented: SPR Conference, May 2022  
This sustainability study explored the factors associated with continued implementation of MindUP™, a mindfulness-informed social and emotional learning curriculum in schools. Through multi-year, quasi-experimental research, the study assessed barriers and facilitators to sustaining the curriculum in kindergarten to Grade 3 classrooms.


Exploring the Relationships Among Executive Functioning, Behaviour, and Adaptive Skills in Young Children - Melissa Read
Presented: Banff International Conferences on Behavioural Science, March 18, 2019 
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between executive functioning, adaptive skills, and behaviour problems in young children. Participants were divided into four behaviour groups (high internalizing, high externalizing, combined high internalizing and externalizing, and within the normal range). The predictive ability of inhibition, shift, working memory, adaptive skills, age, and gender on group membership were explored. Both variable and person oriented perspectives were examined.


Reaching the Tipping Point: Supporting Canadian School Stakeholders to Build on Programs that Work for Positive Youth Development and Prevention of Problematic Substance Use - Nicole Bullock
Presented: Banff International Conferences on Behavioural Science, March 18, 2019 
The Centre for School Mental Health at Western University and the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) have partnered to develop a series of resources for school communities to promote positive youth development (PYD) through school-based initiatives. Following an extensive literature review and consultations from diverse stakeholders, three key themes emerged to guide the development of these resources: (1) promoting well-being, (2) creating welcoming environments, and (3) effective programming.


Parents' Experiences with an Individualized Intervention Designed to Strengthen the Family-School Partnership: The Parents in Partnership with Educators Program (PIPE) - Courtney Cadieux
Presented: Banff International Conferences on Behavioural Science, March 18, 2019 
This study describes the experiences of parents who participated in the Parents in Partnership with Educators (PIPE) program, an individualized intervention for families who are struggling to communicate and problem-solve with schools around the mental health needs of their children. File review and semi-structured interviews were conducted for ten families.


Using Group Concept Mapping to Explore Considerations for Developing and Implementing Trauma-Informed Interventions in Schools with Newcomer Children and Youth - Alexandra Smith
Presented: Banff International Conferences on Behavioural Science, March 18, 2019 
During the spring of 2018, a pilot was conducted in two large Ontario schoolboards to evaluate the feasibility of a new 10-week manualized intervention (Supporting Transition Resilience of Newcomer Groups [STRONG]) developed to promote resilience and reduce distress among young newcomers. In the current study, stakeholders involved in the pilot (i.e., mental health clinicians, mental health leaders, developers of the STRONG program, and the evaluation team) participated in an online Group Concept Mapping (GCM) activity to document the groups' collective wisdom about developing and implementing appropriate programming for newcomer children and youth. 


Preliminary Evaluation of The Healthy Relationships Plus Program with Pregnant and Parenting Adolescent Mothers - Caely Dunlop
Presented: Banff International Conferences on Behavioural Science, March 18, 2019 
The Healthy Relationships Plus Program - Enhanced for Vulnerable Youth (HRP-Enhanced) was piloted with two groups of pregnant and parenting adolescent mothers in an alternative education setting in Ontario, Canada. The present study employed a mixed-methods case study to evaluate the feasibility of implementing the HRP-Enhanced program with this population.


Building Educator Capacity to Support LGBT2Q+ Youth: A Case Study of the Educators from the Northwest Territories - Brad Daly
Presented: Banff International Conferences on Behavioural Science, March 18, 2019 
This currrent study explored the needs and perceptions of 25 educators from the Northwest Territories related to supporting LGBT2Q+ youth both before and after participating in a two-day Healthy Relationships Program for LGBT2Q+ Youth training session. 


A Pilot Study of an Adapted Social-Emotional Learning Program for Justice Involved Youth - Amanda Kerry
Presented: Banff International Conferences on Behavioural Science, March 18, 2019 
The Fourth R Healthy Relationships Plus Program (HRPP) is an evidence-informed small groups program that promotes healthy relationships, positive mental health, violence prevention, and skills development. A previous study evaluated the feasibility of the program in youth justice settings and identified necessary revisions. The present study piloted the adapted program (HRPP-Enhanced) and examined youth outcomes. The adapted program was piloted in youth custody facilities in Manitoba and Ontario. 


Exploring Kindergarten Children's Self-Regulation for Learning (SR/L) Within a Mindfulness-Based Social Emotional Learning Program
This study explored how children's social and solo SR/L developed during the implementation of a mindfulness-based SEL program, how children's demographic and teacher factors were associated with it over course of the program, and teachers' perceptions of changes in their teaching, classrooms, and/or students as a result of implementing the MindUP ™.


Bullying Experiences Among FNMI Youth: Identifying Effects on Mental Health and Potential Protective Factors
This poster presents findings from a study that examined the effects of bullying on the mental wellbeing of First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) youth, and aimed to identify potential protective factors that predicted more positive mental health outcomes for this population. 


Understanding Help-Seeking Intentions Amongst Canadian Adolescents
This study examines the association between perceived behavioural control, attitudes and beliefs regarding help-seeking behaviour and the help-seeking intentions of youth under circumstances as they relate to social, emotional or mental health issues. 


Exploring Adolescent Intentions to Seek Help Before and After the Implementation of a Social Emotional Program
This study examines adolescent intentions to seek help before and following the implementation of the Healthy Relationships Plus Program. This program focuses on teaching adaptive coping strategies in various youth-related well-being issues.


Predicting Help-Seeking in Adolescent Responses to Bullying
1057 Canadian students participated in a self-report survey measuring a range of attitudes and characteristics that might be associated with help-seeking behaviour.


Adolescent Bullying: The Impact of Self-Efficacy, Social Support and Moral Disengagement on Prosocial Intervening
1057 Canadian students participated in a self-report survey measuring a range of attitudes and characteristics that might be predictive of prosocial intervening. 


Changes in Depression and Anxiety Among Youth in the Context of a Healthy Relationships Program
As part of evaluation of the Healthy Relationships Plus Program (HRPP) in Canada, this study sought to identify individual and group-level predictors of depression and anxiety at pre-test, and rate of change from pre- to post-test


Adolescent Depression Before and After the Healthy Relationships Plus Program
This study examines latent class trajectories of depression in a sample of youth who participated in the Healthy Relationships Plus Program in Canada. It also explored risk factors associated with these developmental trajectories.


Adolescent Perceptions of Cyber-Bullying in Friendships and Dating Relationships
This study combines the findings of two previous studies that examined cyberbullying within the context of adolescent friendships and dating relationships with samples of 145 and 70 secondary school students. The first study examined the behavioural characteristics responsible for the victimization and perpetration of cyberbullying and the second study investigated adolescents' perceptions of severity, motives, and point in a dating relationship at which it is likely to become most severe. A mixed-methods approach was utilized, with quantitative data obtained through surveys and qualitative data from semi-structured focus groups among students in a secondary school in southwestern Ontario.


Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and School Disruption: An Examination among Clinically Referred School-Aged Youth
This study examines whether students who engaged in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) reported higher levels of school disruption than students without a history of NSSI. In addition, the research also analyzed whether the link between NSSI and school disruption was maintained, after taking into account other risk factors for school disruption (i.e., anxiety, hyperactivity/distractibility, anhedonia, parenting stress). 


Associations Between Traditional and Cyber-Bullying and Multiple Indicators of Mental Wellness in a Canadian Adolescent Sample
This study examines the associations between traditional and cyber-bullying and multiple indicators of mental wellness (hope; purpose; psychological distress; coping; and emotional, social and psychological well-being) for victims and bully-victims in a sample of Canadian adolescents. 


Increasing Knowledge and Self-Efficacy Through a Pre-Service Course on Safe Schools: The Crucial Role of Reducing Moral Disengagement
This study examines the impact of a Safe Schools course for pre-service teachers on bullying knowledge, likelihood to meet mandatory reporting requirements in situations involving violence, and the role of moral disengagement as a possible mediator of change.


Evaluation of Universal Prevention Programs Adapted for Youth Justice Settings: Phase l findings 
In 2016, The Fourth R and Healthy Relationships Plus Program (HRPP) were piloted in two youth custody facilities in Manitoba, Canada. This study sought to evaluate the feasibility of the programs in youth justice settings and identify necessary revisions.


Healthy Relationships Plus Program Evaluation: Understanding Multi-Site Implementation Challenges & Successes
The Fourth R Healthy Relationships Plus Program (HRPP), an evidence-informed prevention program was piloted across four diverse Canadian provinces. The participants included 79 facilitators from 81 schools and community agencies. This study sought to evaluate the feasibility of the program and identify necessary revisions in program or implementation strategies. 


Exploring the Influence of Bullying and Self-harm on Negative School Experience among Children and Youth in Ontario
This study seeks to examine if self-harm is used as a coping strategy to mitigate the effects of bullying on educational experience. Data was collected from 1358 children and youth, 4-18 years of age, receiving mental health services across Ontario, Canada using the interRAI Child and Youth Mental Health (ChYMH) Instrument.

Books and Chapters

  • Dozois, E. Wells, L. &  Crooks, C.V. (in press). Developing sustainable and coordinated school and community violence prevention: Lessons from Alberta, Canada. Crime Prevention.

  • Crooks, C. V., & Wolfe, D. A. (2019). In C. del Carmen (Ed.).  The Fourth R: Teaching healthy relationship skills to reduce youth risk behaviors.  Trauma Informed Schools: How Child Maltreatment prevention, detection, and intervention can be integrated into the school setting. ( pg  19-32).  New York, NY: Springer.  

  • Crooks, C. V., Jaffe, P. G., & Dunlop, C (in press). Intervening with children exposed to domestic violence: Multiple opportunities to prevent harm and promote resilience. In C. Renzetti, R. Bergen, & J. Edleson, (eds), Sourcebook on Violence Against Women, 3rd Edition. New York: Sage.

  • Crooks, C.  V., Chiodo, D., Dunlop, C., Lapointe, A., & Kerry, A. (2018). The Fourth R: Considerations for implementing evidence-based healthy relationships and mental health promotion programming in diverse contexts. In A. W. Leschied, D. Saklofske, & G. Flett (eds.)  The Handbook of Implementation of School Based Mental Health Promotion: An Evidence-Informed Framework for Implementation (pp.299-321) Springer Publishing, New York, NY. 
  • Crooks, C. V., Exner-Cortens, Siebold, W., Rosier, M., & Baker, K (2018). Building capacity to implement teen dating violence prevention: Lessons learned from the Alaska Fourth R initiative. In D. Wolfe and J. Temple (Eds.) Dating violence: Theory, research, and prevention (pp. 503-521) . New York: Academics Press/Elsevier
  • Crooks, C. V., & Dunlop, C.  (2017). Mental health promotion with aboriginal youth: Lessons learned from the Uniting Our Nations Program. In J. R. Harrison, B. R. Schultz., & S. W. Evans (eds.) School Mental Health Services for Adolescents. New York, NY: Oxford University Press
  • Crooks, C. V. (2011). The science of prevention: Interrupting the cycle of violence. In Institute of Medicine (Ed). Preventing violence against women and children (pp. 87-97). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
  • Crooks, C. V., Chiodo, D., Thomas, D., & Hughes, R. (2011). Strength-based violence prevention programming for First Nations youth within a mainstream school setting. In D. Pepler, J. Cummings, & W. Craig (Eds.), Creating a World Without Bullying (pp. 43-62). PREVNet Series, Vol. 3. Ottawa, Canada: National Printers.

  • Crooks, C. V., Jaffe, P.G., Wolfe, D. A., Hughes, R., & Chiodo, D. (2010). School-based dating violence prevention: From single events to evaluated, integrated programming. (pp 327-348). In C. Renzetti, J. Edleson. & R. Kennedy Bergen (Eds.). Sourcebook on Violence Against Women. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Crooks, C. V., Jaffe, P.G., & Bala, N. (2010). Factoring in the effects of children’s exposure to domestic violence in determining appropriate postseparation parenting plans. (pp. 22.1-22.25). In M. Hannah and B. Goldstein (Eds.) Domestic violence, abuse, and child custody. Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute.

  • Dozois, E. Wells, L. & Crooks, C.V. (in press). Developing sustainable and coordinated school and community violence prevention: Lessons from Alberta, Canada. Crime Prevention.

  • Rodger, S. , Hibbert, K., Leschied, A., Masters, R., Pandori-Chuckal, J., & Atkins, M.A. Mental Health Literacy as a Fundamental Part of Teacher Preparation: A Canadian Perspective, in Alan Leschied & Don Saklofske (eds.)  Handbook of School Based Mental Health Promotion: An Evidence-Informed Framework. Springer. (forthcoming)

  • Rodger, S. ,  Chapter 9: Mental Health Education, In  Joe Barrett and Carol Scaini (eds)  Quality   Health and Physical Education:  Pedagogical Practices and Considerations for Canadian Elementary School Teacher  Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL  (forthcoming).

  • Rodger, S. , Hibbert, K. & Gilpin, M. (2017). Preservice Teacher Education for Mental Health in the Rural Community. In K. Michael & J.P. Jameson (Eds.),  Handbook for Rural School Mental Health , Springer: Cham, pp 63-79.

  • Rodger, S.  and Leschied, A. (2011). The Impact of Victimization in Cases of Historical Child Sexual Abuse and Intimate Partner Violence: Implications for Practice.  Psychology of  Victimization . Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Hauppauge, NY.

Presentations