Fourth R Research

Research Highlights:

The Fourth R Reduces Dating Violence and Increases Condom Use 2.5 Years Later.

This study utilized a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) design with a 2.5 year follow up with 1,722 students aged 14 to 15 years. The intervention condition was the Fourth R Grade 9 Physical and Health Education program – a 21-lesson curriculum delivered during 28 hours by teachers with additional training in the dynamics of dating violence and healthy relationships. Control schools targeted similar objectives without the training or materials. Results indicated that physical dating violence was about 2.5 times greater among control versus intervention students. The Fourth R intervention had a stronger impact on reducing physical dating violence among boys than girls, and it improved condom use in sexually active boys when compared to students in the control condition. Thus, teaching youth about healthy relationships as part of their required health curriculum reduced physical dating violence and increased condom use 2.5 years later at a low per-student cost (average $16 per student).

Wolfe, D.A., Crooks, C.V., Jaffe, P.G., Chiodo, D., Hughes, R., Ellis, W., Stitt, L., & Donner, A. (2009). A universal school-based program to prevent adolescent dating violence: A cluster randomized trial. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 163, 693-699. 

Teachers and Administrators Find the Program Easy to Implement and Identify Significant Benefits for all Stakeholders.

Surveys were sent to 75 stakeholders in 7 provinces to identify specific factors that promote the adoption of the Fourth R, as well as possible barriers. Of the 25 decision-makers who responded, the most important factors in their decision to adopt the Fourth R were the research base of the Fourth R and the perception of the program’s potential to have a positive impact on students, followed by the curriculum-based nature of the program. Teacher data were collected from 40 teachers. Results indicated a high level of satisfaction and identified clearly written lesson plans as the best feature. The biggest implementation barrier was timeframes, for both teachers and decision-makers. Educators identified the provision of accurate information coupled with skills practice as the most important benefits for students. The majority of respondents indicated they had enjoyed benefits as well, ranging from learning more about relationship violence to having students who are more engaged with the course material. 

Crooks, C. V., Wolfe, D. A., Hughes, R., Jaffe, P. G., & Chiodo, D. (2008). Development, evaluation and national implementation of a school-based program to reduce violence and related risk behaviors. Institute for the Prevention of Crime Review, 2, 109-135.

A related study surveyed approximately 200 educators from 6 provinces who were trained in a Fourth R program between 2 and 8 years previously. Results from this retrospective study demonstrated that educators continue to be highly satisfied with the programming, but that higher implementation fidelity was predicted by 1) perceived readiness after training and 2) perceived support and accountability. 

Crooks, C.V., Chiodo, D., Zwarych, S., Hughes, R., & Wolfe, D.A. (2013). Predicting implementation success of an evidence-based program to promote healthy relationships among students two to eight years after teacher training. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health, 32, 125-138.

The Fourth R Produces a School-Wide Buffering Impact for Maltreated Youth in Reducing Violent Delinquency.

Child maltreatment constitutes significant risk for adolescent delinquency. Our previous research demonstrated that the Fourth R could provide a protective impact for youth at risk for violent delinquency due to child maltreatment history. In this study, we conducted a follow-up to determine if participation in the Fourth R program in grade 9 continued to provide a buffering effect on engaging in acts of violent delinquency for maltreated youth two years post-intervention. Individual- and school-level factors predicting violent delinquency in grade 11 replicated previous findings from grade 9: being male, experiencing child maltreatment, being violent in grade 9, and attending a school with a lower perceived sense of safety among the entire student body increased violent delinquency. However, in non-intervention schools, youth with maltreatment in their background were increasingly likely to engage in violent delinquency in comparison to maltreated youth in intervention schools. Therefore, the Fourth R creates a protective effect for maltreated youth with respect to lowering their likelihood of engaging in violent delinquency. 

Crooks, C.V., Scott, K., Ellis, W., & Wolfe, D.A. (2011). Impact of a universal school-based violence prevention program on violent delinquency: Distinctive benefits for youth with maltreatment histories. Child Abuse & Neglect, 35, 393-400.

Youth in the Fourth R Demonstrate Better Peer Resistance and Communication Skills Compatred to Control School Youth.

This study examined peer resistance skills following a 21-lesson classroom-based intervention to build healthy relationships and decrease abusive and health-risk behaviours among adolescents. The Fourth R instructs students in positive relationship skills, such as negotiation and delay, for navigating challenging peer and dating scenarios. Observational data from 196 grade 9 students participating in a cluster randomized controlled trial (98 per condition) were used to evaluate post-intervention acquisition of peer resistance skills. Pairs of students engaged in a role play paradigm with older student actors, where they were subjected to increasing pressure to comply with peer requests related to drugs and alcohol, bullying, and sexual behaviour. Role plays were videotaped and coded by two different sets of coders, blinded to condition. Research assistants coded the observations for five specific behavioural responses (negotiation, delay, yielding to pressure, refusal, and compliance), and 11 teachers rated half of the observations on four global indices (i.e., thinking / inquiry, application, communication, and perceived efficacy). Students who received the intervention were more likely to demonstrate negotiation skills and less likely to yield to negative pressure relative to controls. Intervention girls were much more likely to use delay than control girls; control girls were more likely to use refusal. The number of times students complied with peer requests did not differ. Teacher ratings demonstrated significant main effects favouring intervention youth on all measures. 

Wolfe, D. A., Crooks, C. V., Chiodo, D., Hughes, R., & Ellis, W. (2012).  Observations of adolescent peer resistance skills following a classroom-based healthy relationship program: A post-intervention comparison. Prevention Science, 13, 196-205.

The Fourth R Parent Media Violence Workshop Improves Parents' Monitorng of their Children's Media Use and Reduces their Children's Media Consumption.

This study evaluated the Fourth R Parent Media Violence Workshop. Workshop participants were surveyed immediately following a workshop to gauge their perceptions of what they learned and to understand the extent to which they monitored their children’s media use pre-workshop. A subsample of these same participants was surveyed 6 months later to examine whether parents implemented the strategies they learned during the workshop and, if so, to understand what specific strategies they used. The results indicated that parents engaged in enhanced appropriately restrictive and active monitoring practices following the workshop. Furthermore, following the workshop parents seemed to re-evaluate potentially problematic parenting norms that encourage decreased monitoring as children mature, countering the notion that adolescents are capable of navigating the media world on their own. Finally, a significant decrease in children’s media consumption was observed following the workshop. The results provide preliminary evidence to suggest that even short, one-time intensive workshops for parents can move parents’ behaviours in the intended direction and positively impact their monitoring strategies. 

Broll, R., Crooks, C.V., Burns, S., Hughes, R., & Jaffe, P.G. (2013). Parental monitoring, media literacy, and media violence: A preliminary evaluation of the Fourth R Parent Media Violence Workshop. International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies, 4, 301-319.

Additional Research:

Journal Articles

  • Broll, R. (2014). 'Criminals are inside of our homes': Intimate partner violence and fear of crime. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice.

  • Crooks, C.V., Snowshoe, A., Chiodo, D., & Brunette-Debassige, C. (2013). Navigating between rigor and community-based research partnerships: Building the evaluation of the Uniting Our Nations health promotion program for FNMI youth. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health.

  • Broll, R., Crooks, C.V., Burns, S., Hughes, R., & Jaffe, P.G. (2013). Parental monitoring, media literacy, and media violence: A preliminary evaluation of the Fourth R Parent Media Violence Workshop. International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies, 4, 301-319.

  • Crooks, C.V., Chiodo, D., Zwarych, S., Hughes, R., & Wolfe, D.A. (2013). Predicting implementation success of an evidence-based program to promote healthy relationships among students two to eight years after teacher training. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health, 32, 125-138.

  • Hamilton, L.H.A., Jaffe, P.G., Campbell, M. (2013). Assessing children's risk for homicide in the context of domestic violence. Journal of Family Violence, 28, 179-189.

  • Huey, L., Nhan, J., & Broll, R. (2013). 'Uppity civilians' and 'cyber vigilantes': The role of the general public in policing cybercrime. Criminology & Criminal Justice, 13, 81-97.

  • Jaffe, P.G., Campbell, M., & Olszowy, L.P. (2013). Health care professionals' role in preventing child homicides in the context of domestic violence. Paediatrics Today, 9, 55-63.

  • Olszowy, L., Jaffe, P.G., Campbell, M., & Hamilton, L.H.A. (2013). Effectiveness of risk assessment tools in differentiating child homicides from other domestic homicide cases. Journal of Child Custody, 10, 185-206.

  • Temple, J.R., Shorey, R.C., Tortolerno, S.R., Wolfe, D.A., & Stuart, G.L. (2013). Importance of gender and attitudes about violence in the relationship between exposure to interparental violence and the perpetration of teen dating violence. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37, 343-352.

  • Chiodo, D., Crooks, C.V., Wolfe, D.A., McIsaac, C., Hughes, R., & Jaffe, P.G. (2012). Longitudinal prediction and concurrent functioning of adolescent girls demonstrating various profiles of dating violence and victimization. Prevention Science, 13, 350-359.

  • Dumas, T.M., Ellis, W.E., & Wolfe, D.A. (2012). Identity development as a buffer of adolescent risk behaviours in the context of peer group pressure and control. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 919-927.

  • Ellis, W.E., Dumas, T.M., Mahdy, J.C., & Wolfe, D.A. (2012). Observations of adolescent peer group interactions as a function of within- and between-group centrality status. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 22, 252-266.

  • Guaiana, G., Morelli, A.C., & Chiodo, D. (2012). Cognitive behaviour therapy (group) for schizophrenia [protocol]. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CD009608.

  • Huey, L., & Broll, R. (2012). 'All it takes is one tv show to ruin it': Police-media relations in the era of expanding prime time crime markets. Policing & Society, 22, 384-396.

  • Wolfe, D.A., Crooks, C.V., Chiodo, D., Hughes, R., & Ellis, W. (2012). Observations of adolescent peer resistance skills following a classroom-based healthy relationship program: A post-intervention comparison. Prevention Science, 13, 196-205.

  • Crooks, C.V., Scott, K., Ellis, W., & Wolfe, D.A. (2011). Impact of a universal school-based violence prevention program on violent delinquency: Distinctive benefits for youth with maltreatment histories. Child Abuse & Neglect, 35, 393-400.

  • Jaffe, P.G., Berman, H., & MacQuarrie, B. (2011). A Canadian model for building university and community partnerships: Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children. Violence Against Women, 17, 1159-1175.

  • Mann, R.E., Paglia-Boak, A., Adlaf, E.M., Beitchman, J., Wolfe, D.A., Wekerle, C., Hamilton, H.A., & Rehm, J. (2011). Estimating the prevalence of anxiety and mood disorders in an adolescent general population: An evaluation of the GHQ12. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 9, 1-11.

  • Wolfe, D.A., Crooks, C.V., & Hughes, R. (2011). The Fourth R: A school-based adolescent dating violence prevention program (in Spanish). Psychosocial Intervention, 20, 193-200.

  • Wolfe, D.A., & McIsaac, C. (2011). Distinguishing between poor/dysfunctional parenting and child emotional maltreatment. Child Abuse & Neglect, 35, 802-813.

  • Campbell, M., Neil, J.A., Jaffe, P.G., & Kelly, T. (2010). Engaging abusive men in seeking community intervention: A critical research and practice priority. Journal of Family Violence, 25, 413-422.

  • Jaffe, P.G., Ashbourne, D., & Mamo, A.A. (2010). Early identification and prevention of parent-child alienation: A framework for balancing risks and benefits of intervention. Family Court Review, 48, 136-152.

  • Jaffe, P.G., Crooks, C.V., & Bala, N. (2010). A framework for addressing allegations of domestic violence in child custody disputes. Journal of Child Custody, 6, 169-188.

  • Litrownik, A.J., & Wolfe, D.A. (2010). Introduction to the special section: Promising methodological strategies. Child Abuse & Neglect, 34, 144-145.

  • Wolfe, D.A., Jaffe, P.G., Leschied, A.W., & Legate, B.L. (2010). Assessing historical abuse allegations and damages. Child Abuse & Neglect, 34, 135-143.

  • Chiodo, D., Wolfe, D.A., Crooks, C.V., Hughes, R., & Jaffe, P.G. (2009). Impact of sexual harassment victimization by peers on subsequent adolescent victimization and adjustment: A longitudinal study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45, 246-252.

  • Crooks, C.V., Chiodo, D., Thomas, D., & Hughes, R. (2009). Strengths-based programming for First Nations youth in schools: Building engagement through healthy relationships and leadership skills. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 8, 160-173.

  • Ellis, W.E., Crooks, C.V., & Wolfe, D.A. (2009). Relational aggression in peer and dating relationships: Links to psychological and behavioral adjustment. Social Development, 18, 253-269.

  • Ellis, W.E., & Wolfe, D. A. (2009). Understanding the association between maltreatment history and adolescent risk behavior by examining popularity motivations and peer group control. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 1253-1263.

  • Jaffe, P.G., Crooks, C.V., & Bala, N. (2009). A framework for addressing allegations of domestic violence in child custody disputes. Journal of Child Custody, 6, 169-188.

  • Wolfe, D.A., Crooks, C.V., Chiodo, D., & Jaffe, P.G. (2009). Child maltreatment, bullying, gender-based harassment, and adolescent dating violence: Making the connections. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 33, 21-24.

  • Wolfe, D.A., Crooks, C.V., Jaffe, P., Chiodo, D., Hughes, R., Ellis, W., Stitt, L., & Donner, A. (2009). A universal school-based program to prevent adolescent dating violence: a cluster randomized trial. Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine, 163, 692-699.

  • Chiodo, D., Leschied, A.W., Whitehead, P., & Hurley, D (2008). Child welfare practice and policy related to the impact of children experiencing physical victimization and domestic violence. Children and Youth Services Review, 30, 564-574.

  • Crooks, C. V., Wolfe, D. A., Hughes, R., Jaffe, P. G., & Chiodo, D. (2008). Development, evaluation and national implementation of a school-based program to reduce violence and related risk behaviors. Institute for the Prevention of Crime Review, 2, 109-135.

  • Francis, K.J., & Wolfe, D.A. (2008). Cognitive and emotional differences between abusive and non-abusive fathers. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31, 1127-1137.

  • Jaffe, P.G., Johnston, J.R., Crooks, C.V., Bala, N. (2008). Custody disputes involving allegations of domestic violence: The need for differentiated approaches to parenting plans. Family Court Review, 46, 500-522.

  • Leschied, A., Chiodo, D., Nowicki, E., & Rodger, S. (2008). Childhood predictors of adult criminality: A meta-analysis. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 50, 435-467.

  • Marquis, R.A., Leschied, A.W., Chiodo, D., & O'Neill, A. (2008). The relationship of child neglect and physical maltreatment to placement outcomes and behavioural adjustment for children in foster care. Child Welfare, 87, 5-25.

  • Sullivan, C., Whitehead, P., Leschied, A.W., Chiodo, D., & Hurley, D. (2008). Perception of risk among child protection workers.Children and Youth Services Review, 30, 699-704.

Books

  • Mash, E.J., & Wolfe, D.A. (2013). Abnormal child psychology (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage.

  • Crooks, C.V., Sonier, B., Wilson, T., Dale, S., Elliott, L., Hughes, R., & Jaffe, P.G. (2012). A comprehensive toolkit for safe, inclusive and accepting schools: Strategies from the Thames Valley District School Board. Toronto, ON: Ontario Institute for Education Leadership.

  • Jaffe, P.G., Wolfe, D.A., & Campbell, M. (2012). Growing up with domestic violence. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe Publishing.

  • Wolfe, D.A., Ballon, B., Chaim, G., Chiodo, D., & Henderson, J. (2011). What parents need to know about teen risk taking: Strategies for reducing problems related to alcohol, other drugs, gambling, and Internet use. Toronto: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.

  • Crooks, C.V., Chiodo, D., Thomas, D., Burns, S., & Camillo, C. (2010). Engaging and empowering Aboriginal youth: A toolkit for service providers (2nd ed.). Bloomington, IN: Trafford.

  • Crooks, C.V., Chiodo, D., Thomas, D., Burns, S., & Camillo, C. (2010). Engagement et responsabilisation des jeunes autochtones : Trousse d'outils destinée aux fournisseurs de services (2nd ed.). Bloomington, IN: Trafford.

  • Crooks, C.V., Chiodo, D., & Thomas, D. (2009). Engaging and empowering Aboriginal youth: A toolkit for service providers. Victoria, BC: Trafford.

  • Jaffe, P.G., Crooks, C.V., Watson, C.L. (2009). Creating safe school environments: From small steps to sustainable change. London, ON: Althouse Press.

  • Mash, E.J., & Wolfe, D.A. (2009). Abnormal child psychology (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage.

  • Wolfe, D.A. (Ed.). (2007). Acting out: Aggressive behaviour in children and youth. Toronto: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.

  • Wolfe, D.A. (2007). What parents need to know about teens: Some facts and strategies. Toronto: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.

  • Wolfe, D.A., Jaffe, P.G., & Crooks, C.V. (2006). Adolescent risk behaviors: Why teens experiment and strategies to keep them safe. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

  • Wolfe, D.A., & Mash, E.J. (Eds.). (2006). Behavioral and emotional disorders in adolescents: Nature, assessment, and treatment. New York: Guilford.

  • Wekerle, C., Miller, A., Wolfe, D.A., & Spindel, C.B. (2006). Childhood maltreatment. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe & Huber.

  • Mash, E.J., & Wolfe, D.A. (2005). Abnormal child psychology (3rd ed.).  Pacific Groves, CA: Wadsworth.

Book Chapters

  • Broll, R., Burns, S., Parkington, K., Pandori, J., & Doucette, J. (in press). Challenges and lessons learned in conducting cyber bulling research and education. In D. Pepler, J.Cummings, & W. Craig (Eds.), Creating healthy relationships to prevent bullying. Ottawa: National Printers.

  • Cardinal, S., & Crooks, C.V. (in press). Engaging Aboriginal communities and youth in violence prevention. In D. Pepler, J. Cummings, & W. Craig (Eds.), Creating healthy relationships to prevent bullying. Ottawa: National Printers.

  • Chiodo, D., Gilles, C., Snowshoe, A., Trach, J., Burns, S., Lee, M., & Gregory, S. (in press). Beyond the classroom: Graduate student experiences in violence prevention programming and evaluation in schools and communities for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal youth. In D. Pepler, J.Cummings, & W. Craig (Eds.), Creating healthy relationships to prevent bullying. Ottawa: National Printers.

  • Mash, E., & Wolfe, D.A. (2012). Disorders of childhood and adolescence. In I.B. Weiner, G. Stricker & T.A. Widiger (Eds.), Handbook of Psychology, Vol. 8: Clinical Psychology (pp. 19-72)New York: Wiley.

  • Crooks, C.V. (2011). The science of prevention: Interrupting the cyber of violence. In Institute of Medicine (Ed.), Preventing violence against women and children (pp. 87-97). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

  • Crooks, C.V., Chiodo, D., Thomas, D., & Hughes, R. (2011). Strength-based violence prevention programming for First Nations youth within a mainstream school setting. In D. Pepler, J. Cummings, & W. Craig (Eds.), Creating a world without bullying (pp. 43-62). Ottawa: National Printers.

  • Wolfe, D.A. (2011). Risk factors for child abuse perpetration. In J.W. White, M.P. Koss, & A.E. Kazdin (Eds.), Violence against women and children: Mapping the terrain, Vol. 1 (pp. 31-53). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

  • Crooks, C.V., Jaffe, P.G., & Bala, N. (2010). Factoring in the effects of children’s exposure to 
    domestic violence in determining appropriate parenting plans. In M. Hannah & B. Goldstein (Eds.), Domestic violence, abuse, and child custody (pp. 21.1-22.25). Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute.

  • Crooks, C.V., Jaffe, P.G., Wolfe, D.A., Hughes, R., & Chiodo, D. (2010). School-based dating 
    violence prevention: From single events to evaluated, integrated programming. In C. Renzetti, J.Edleson, & R. Kennedy Bergen (Eds.), Sourcebook on violence against women (pp. 327-346). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Chiodo, D., Hughes, R., & Wolfe, D.A. (2008). Violence prevention curricula for adolescents. In C. Renzetti & J. Edleson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Interpersonal Violence, Vol. 2 (p. 755-757). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Crooks, C.V. (2008). Engaging Aboriginal youth in school-based violence prevention: A comprehensive evaluation perspective. In D. Pepler & W. Craig (Eds.) Understanding and addressing bullying: An international perspective (pp. 198-214). Bloomington, IN: Authorhouse.

  • Crooks, C.V. (2008). Engaging Aboriginal youth in school-based violence prevention: A comprehensive evaluation perspective. In D. Pepler & W. Craig (Eds.), Understanding and addressing bullying: An international perspective (pp. 198-214). Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse.

  • Crooks, C.V. (2008). Collaborative divorce, benefits to chilidren. In C. Renzetti & J. Edleson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Interpersonal Violence, Vol. 1 (pp. 134-135). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Crooks, C.V. (2008). Prevalence, measuring. In C. Renzetti & J. Edleson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Interpersonal Violence, Vol. 2 (p. 529). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Crooks, C.V. (2008). Prevention programs, adolescent dating violence. In C. Renzetti & J. Edleson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Interpersonal Violence, Vol. 2 (p. 529-532). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Crooks, C.V. (2008). Prevention programs, community approaches to intimate partner violence. In C. Renzetti & J. Edleson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Interpersonal Violence, Vol. 2 (p. 536-537). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Crooks, C.V. (2008). Prevalence, measuring. In C. Renzetti & J. Edleson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Interpersonal Violence, Vol. 2 (p. 529). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Crooks, C.V., Jaffe, P.G., & Wolfe, D.A. (2008). School-based violence prevention programs. In C. Renzetti & J. Edleson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Interpersonal Violence, Vol. 2 (p. 624-625). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Jaffe, P.G., Crooks, C.V., & Bala, N. (2008). Domestic violence and child custody disputes: The need for a new framework for the family court. In J. Ursel, L.M. Tutty, & J. LeMaistre (Eds.), What’s law got to do with it: The law, specialized courts, and domestic violence in Canada (pp. 254-271). Toronto: Cormorant Press.

  • Jaffe, P.G., Crooks, C.V., & Juodis, M. (2008). Risk assessment instruments, intimate partner violence. In C. Renzetti & J. Edleson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Interpersonal Violence, Vol. 2 (p. 607-609). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Wolfe, D.A., Crooks, C.V., Hughes, R., & Jaffe, P.J. (2008). The Fourth R: A school-based program to reduce violence and risk behaviors among youth. In D. Pepler & W. Craig (Eds.), Understanding and addressing bullying: An international perspective(pp. 184-197). Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse.

Professional Reports & Publications

  • Crooks, C.V., Hughes, R., & Zwarych, S. (2013, Summer). The Fourth R: Healthy Relationships Plus Program. Canadian School Counsellor Magazine, 39-41.

  • Crooks, C.V., Zwarych, S., & Brooks, K. (2013). Implementing evidence-based violence prevention programming in schools: The role of the school administrator. Saskatchewan School Board Leaders, Volume 9.

  • Broll, R., Crooks, C.V., Baker, L., & Straatman, A. (2012). Evaluating violence against women training initiatives: A primer. London, ON: Violence Against Women Learning Network.

  • Burns, S., Crooks, C.V., Hughes, R., & Zwarych, S. (2012). Using the Fourth R as a resource to meet curriculum health outcomes. Guidelines: Journal of the Saskatchewan School Counsellor Association, 45, 4-6.

  • Crooks, C.V., Hughes, R., Lapp, A., Aikens, A., Burleigh, D., & Snowshoe, A. (2012). Fourth R Uniting Our Nations: Annual report, 2011-2012. London, ON: CAMH Centre for Prevention Science.

  • Siebold, W.L., Hegge, L.M., & Crooks, C.V. (2012). Alaska Fourth R curriculum evaluation: Annual report, 2011-2012. Missoula, MT: Strategic Prevention Solutions.

  • Jaffe, P.G., Dawson, M., & Campbell, M. (2011). Lessons learned from domestic violence tragedies: Emerging research, policies, and practices to prevent domestic homicides. London, ON: Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children.

  • Jaffe, P.G., MacQuarrie, B., Straatman, A.L., & Reid, M. (2011). Confronting the many faces of child sexual abuse: Developing a comprehensive national prevention strategy. London, ON: Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children.

  • Wolfe, D.A., & McIsaac, C. (2010). Distinguishing between poor/dysfunctional parenting and child emotional maltreatment. Ottawa: Family Violence Prevention Unit of the Public Health Agency of Canada.

  • Chiodo, D., Hughes, R., Wolfe, D.A., & Hurley, F. (2009). Evaluation of the enhanced Fourth R alternative education program. Toronto, ON: Ontario Education Services Corporation, Ministry of Education.

  • Jaffe, P.G., Dawson, M., & Campbell, M. (2009). Multi-disciplinary perspectives on preventing domestic homicides: A discussion paper from a Canadian think-tank. London, ON: Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children.

  • Campbell, M., Jaffe, P.G., & Kelly, T. (2008). What about the men? Finding effective strategies for engaging abusive men and preventing the reoccurrence or escalation of violence against women. London, ON: Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children.

  • Zwarych, S. (2009). Student attachment to school: A longitudinal study of transitioning grade 9 students. Saskatoon, SK: Saskatchewan Teachers Federation.

  • Zwarych, S. (2008, November). Comprehensive and integrated approaches for helping schools and communities reduce violence and risk-taking among youth. Saskatchewan School-Based Administrators Newsletter, 40.